What is GHB Drug? Gamma Hydroxybutyrate Effects. Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid Street Names. Methods of GHB Drug Abuse.

GHB drug is pharmaceutically manufactured as sodium oxybate for the treatment of narcolepsy. This formulation is considered a Schedule III drug in the United States. However, this drug is often misused. After prolonged used and sudden cessation, withdrawal symptoms have been reported in chronic or dependent users after cessation of the GHB use. Continue to read more about GHB drug use and addiction, withdrawal symptoms, and the best treatment options.

By We Level Up | Editor Yamilla Francese | Clinically Reviewed By Lauren Barry, LMFT, MCAP, QS, Director of Quality Assurance | Editorial Policy | Research Policy | Last Updated: July 7, 2023

Gamma Hydroxybutyrate GHB Drug Overview

Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB drug) is a central nervous system depressant primarily known for its sedative and euphoric effects. It is a synthetic compound that can be produced in liquid, powder, or tablet form. GHB is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance in many countries, including the United States, due to its potential for abuse and associated risks. However, pharmaceutical-grade GHB is schedule III.

What drug is GHB? Illicit GHB, Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB), and Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) are terms often used interchangeably, referring to the same compound. The term “illicit GHB” distinguishes it from pharmaceutical-grade GHB, such as Xyrem, which is approved for specific medical use.

GHB is commonly used as a recreational drug, often in party or club scenes, for its intoxicating and relaxing effects. It can induce feelings of euphoria, increased sociability, and reduced inhibitions. It is a very dangerous drug. GHB is associated with significant health risks, including overdose, respiratory depression, memory loss, and addiction.

GHB Drug Guide


GHB Drug Uses

Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a chemical in the brain and is synthetically produced in laboratories. It possesses sedative properties and is prohibited for inclusion in dietary supplements.

GHB affects various neural pathways in the brain and has been employed in instances of drug-facilitated sexual assault and as a recreational substance. Due to safety concerns, it has been classified as a Schedule I controlled substance, rendering its usage illegal.

A prescription variant of GHB, known as sodium oxybate (Xyrem), is employed to address excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy. GHB has also been explored for its potential applications in alcohol use disorder, opioid withdrawal, depression, and other medical conditions. However, it’s worth noting that there is insufficient robust scientific evidence to substantiate these potential uses.

Confirmed Effectiveness for:

Excessive daytime sleepiness (narcolepsy): The oral administration of a designated prescription GHB formulation has effectively improved nighttime sleep in individuals with narcolepsy, thereby reducing daytime drowsiness. This use is FDA-approved, but the efficacy of GHB supplements remains uncertain.

Potential Effectiveness for:

Alcohol use disorder: Intravenous (IV) administration of GHB appears to alleviate symptoms of alcohol withdrawal in individuals with alcohol use disorder. However, the efficacy of oral GHB for this purpose is unclear. It’s important to note that IV GHB products can only be administered under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

Side Effects

GHB Drug Side Effects

When ingested orally: The prescribed variant of GHB, known as sodium oxybate, is generally considered safe when administered under the guidance of a healthcare professional to address excessive daytime sleepiness (narcolepsy). Possible side effects encompass nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and drowsiness.

However, GHB poses substantial risks and is illicit for consumption as a dietary supplement. Its consumption can result in severe side effects, including hallucinations, confusion, memory impairment, comatose states, and even fatality. Prolonged usage may lead to the development of addiction and the emergence of withdrawal symptoms upon cessation.


GHB Drug Risks

When taken orally: The prescribed version of GHB, sodium oxybate, is generally considered safe when administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional to manage excessive daytime sleepiness (narcolepsy). Potential side effects may encompass nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and drowsiness.

However, it is crucial to emphasize that GHB is hazardous and prohibited as a dietary supplement. Its consumption can result in severe side effects, including hallucinations, confusion, memory impairment, coma, and even fatality. Prolonged usage can lead to addiction and the onset of withdrawal symptoms upon cessation.

Pregnancy and breastfeeding: GHB is considered unsafe and should be avoided if you are pregnant or breastfeeding, as it has been associated with life-threatening side effects.

Slow heart rate (bradycardia): GHB should be avoided due to its potential to slow down heart rate.

Seizure disorder (epilepsy): The use of GHB may trigger seizures in individuals with epilepsy. Therefore, it should be avoided in this population.

Surgery: GHB can affect the central nervous system and may lead to excessive drowsiness when combined with anesthesia and other medications employed during and after surgical procedures. To mitigate this risk, it is advisable to discontinue GHB usage at least two weeks before a scheduled surgery. However, consulting with your healthcare provider before discontinuing sodium oxybate (Xyrem) is essential.

Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, a rare disorder: Individuals with this condition face an elevated risk of experiencing severe adverse reactions when using GHB. Therefore, GHB should not be utilized by individuals with this rare disorder.


GHB Drug Interactions

Alcohol: Alcohol is known to induce sleepiness and drowsiness. Combining GHB with alcohol can significantly amplify this sedative effect. It is strongly advised against taking GHB if you have consumed alcohol.

Sedative Medications: GHB can potentially lead to drowsiness and reduced respiratory rate. Certain drugs, known as sedatives, can also potentially induce drowsiness and respiratory depression. Combining GHB with sedative medications may result in breathing difficulties and excessive drowsiness.

Divalproex sodium: Concurrently, using divalproex sodium with GHB may prolong the elimination time of GHB from the body, potentially giving rise to severe side effects.

Amphetamines: Amphetamines can accelerate your nervous system, whereas GHB has the opposite effect of slowing it down. Combining GHB with amphetamines can result in significant and potentially severe side effects.

Medications used to prevent seizures: GHB can potentially elevate the risk. Consequently, its use might diminish the effectiveness of medications intended to prevent seizures, thereby increasing the likelihood of experiencing seizures.

Naloxone: GHB has an impact on the brain’s functioning. Concurrent use of naloxone with GHB may lead to a reduction in the effects of GHB on the brain.

Ritonavir: Ritonavir and saquinavir are often co-administered for treating HIV/AIDS. When taken alongside GHB, these medications may slow the body’s clearance of GHB, potentially leading to severe side effects.

Saquinavir: Saquinavir and ritonavir are frequently prescribed in combination for HIV/AIDS treatment. When used concurrently with GHB, these medications could reduce the rate at which the body eliminates GHB, which may result in severe side effects.

Topiramate: The coadministration of topiramate with GHB may reduce the body’s rate of GHB elimination, potentially resulting in significant side effects.


GHB Drug Dosing

GHB was previously accessible as a dietary supplement in the United States; however, it was withdrawn from the market in 1990 owing to safety apprehensions. It is currently classified as a Schedule I controlled substance, rendering its use illegal. Conversely, a prescription variant of GHB, sodium oxybate (Xyrem), is obtainable for managing excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy. Sodium oxybate is categorized as a Schedule III controlled substance, necessitating a prescription and vigilant oversight by a healthcare professional.

Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid Street Names

GHB drug street names promote illicit and potentially harmful addiction. The variation of the GHB slang terms illustrates the popularity of the various GHB drug names sold illicitly. Some slang names for GHB gamma hydroxybutyrate include the following:

  • Easy Lay.
  • G.
  • Gamma Oh.
  • Georgia.
  • Georgia Home Boy.
  • GHB.
  • Gina.
  • Goop.
  • Great Hormones At Bedtime.
  • Grievous Bodily Harm.
  • Growth Hormone Booster.
  • Home Boy.
  • Liquid Ecstasy.
  • Liquid G.
  • Liquid X.
  • Salty Water.
  • Sleep.
  • Vita G.

Is GHB Addictive?

Yes. Due to GHB’s addictive nature, dependence may arise quickly. Dependence results in GHB withdrawal symptoms, which can be severe and even fatal, when a person stops using.

The pharmaceutical-grade GHB drug is a prescribed and tightly controlled medicine to treat narcolepsy or another illness, but it can be abused like any other illicit drug. The illicit and pharmaceutical GHB’s long-term effects can be lethal, but before that, there are some signs to identify someone using GHB drugs.

  • Taking more than prescribed or using illegal prescriptions to access GHB when it isn’t needed is also considered drug abuse and an addiction to GHB.
  • GHB brings on both hallucinations and a tremendous surge of pleasant feelings.
  • Drowsiness, wooziness, nausea, vomiting, and visual abnormalities are among the adverse effects of GHB use.
  • GHB users risk losing consciousness (passing out), ceasing to breathe, and entering a coma.
Other Side Effects of GHB Drug Addiction
  • Amnesia.
  • Clumsiness.
  • Confusion.
  • Exhaustion.
  • Euphoria.
  • Headache.
  • Lower body temperature.
  • Seizures.
  • Sluggishness.
  • Sweating.

Why Is It Called GHB Date Rape Drug?

GHB gained some notoriety in the media due to its sedative and amnesic effects, which can impair a person’s consciousness, memory, and ability to resist or recall events. This raised concerns about its potential for misuse in situations where someone could administer it to another person without their consent, leading to sexual assault.

How Are GHB Drugs Abused?

GHB and its analogs are abused due to their euphoric and soothing effects and because some think they help grow muscles and shed pounds.

In the 1990s, GHB abuse spread among young adults in dance clubs and “raves” and earned popularity as a drug used in date rape. GHB may be consumed singly or in combination with other substances, including alcohol (most frequently), other sedatives, stimulants, hallucinogens, and marijuana.

The typical dose is between 1 and 5 grams, which can be as little as 1-2 tablespoons dissolved in a beverage, depending on the compound’s purity. The concentrations of these “home brews,” however, have varied so widely that consumers frequently are not aware of the precise dose they are consuming.

What Is GHB Drug Made From?

Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a synthetic compound that is not found naturally in significant quantities in the human body. It is typically produced through chemical synthesis in laboratory settings. The primary precursor for GHB synthesis is gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), which can be converted to GHB through a chemical reaction.

GBL is a common precursor chemical used in various industrial applications. GHB can also be produced in illicit settings using other chemicals, such as gamma-valerolactone (GVL). And by mixing sodium hydroxide (lye) with gamma-butyrolactone (GBL). The production and distribution of GHB outside of regulated pharmaceutical use is illegal in most countries due to its potential for drug addiction.

Who Uses Illicit GHB Drugs?

GHB is known among bodybuilders; this demographic group abuse GHB because this substance has been demonstrated to elevate human growth hormones. The rave scene also significantly influences people between 18 and 22 to take this psychoactive drug. However, small doses act more like a stimulant or aphrodisiac, but that is the tricky part with GHB abuse.

Most users are young people who can be involved quickly in GHB abuse, combining this drug with alcohol, and do not realize how addictive it can be.

Using GHB drugs without a prescription or for non-medical purposes is illegal and potentially dangerous.
Using GHB drugs without a prescription or for non-medical purposes is illegal and potentially dangerous.

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Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate Uses

Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB drug) has limited medical uses. It is primarily prescribed for treating narcolepsy with cataplexy, a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden muscle weakness. It improves symptoms such as excessive daytime sleepiness and reduces the frequency of cataplectic attacks.

Moreover, GHB has been used experimentally in some research settings to treat alcohol and opioid withdrawal symptoms. However, GHB’s use in these contexts is not widespread or approved for general use. Outside of its medical applications, GHB has gained popularity as a recreational drug due to its euphoric and sedative effects. However, non-medical use of GHB can be hazardous, illegal, and associated with significant risks and adverse effects.

Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate Tablet

Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) tablets are a form of drug that typically contain a solid dosage of GHB. These tablets may be produced illegally and sold on the black market or obtained for legitimate medical use under proper supervision. It’s crucial to emphasize that using GHB tablets without a valid prescription is illegal and can pose significant health risks.

Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a controlled substance with limited medical uses, such as for treating narcolepsy. Suppose you believe you have a medical condition that could benefit from GHB treatment. In that case, it is essential to consult with a qualified healthcare professional who can evaluate your specific situation and prescribe medication if appropriate. They will consider your medical history, symptoms, and overall health before making treatment recommendations.

Gamma Hydroxybutyrate Supplement

Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is not typically available as a dietary supplement. GHB is a controlled substance due to its potential misuse, abuse, and adverse effects. It is regulated in many countries and is not legally sold as a supplement.

It’s essential to be cautious of any products claiming to contain GHB as a supplement, as they are likely to be illegal and potentially dangerous. Consult a healthcare professional before taking supplements or GHB medications like Xyrem.

Xyrem is a brand name for sodium oxybate, the sodium salt form of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). It is an FDA-approved medication for narcolepsy with cataplexy, a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden muscle weakness. Xyrem is available as an oral solution and is strictly regulated due to its potential for misuse and abuse. It is only available through a restricted distribution program and requires a prescription from a healthcare professional enrolled in the program.

Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate Cleaner

Although chemically related, GHB (Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate) and GBL (Gamma-Butyrolactone) are different substances. While GHB is primarily known as a drug with sedative and euphoric effects, GBL is commonly used as an industrial solvent and can be found in certain cleaning products.

GBL is a precursor to GHB and is converted into GHB after ingestion. Due to its solvent properties, GBL has been used in some cleaning products, particularly for removing paint and graffiti. However, GBL can be hazardous if mishandled or used improperly, and caution should be exercised when using chemical cleaning solutions.

GHB Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid Drug Facts

Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate Brand Name: Xyrem
GHB Drug Class:
GHB is a Schedule I controlled substance. However, Xyrem (sodium oxybate) is a brand name for pharmaceutical-grade GHB, which the FDA approves for specific medical purposes. Xyrem is classified as a Schedule III controlled drug due to its medical uses in treating narcolepsy with cataplexy.

What Does GHB Look Like?

Typically, GHB is sold as a liquid or as a white powder that is dissolved the powder in a liquid, such as water, juice, or alcohol. A liquid solution of GHB has been packed in miniature bottles of water or vials.

GHB drug is a transparent, colorless, and slightly viscous liquid, and the taste is salty.
GHB drug is a transparent, colorless, and slightly viscous liquid, and the taste is salty.

GHB Drug Availability

Prescription only. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid brand names include Xyrem. A GHB prescription called sodium oxybate (Xyrem) is obtainable for treating excessive daytime sleepiness (narcolepsy). It is a Schedule III controlled medication.

GHB Drug & Pregnancy

Due to its association with increased rates of miscarriage and other birth difficulties, GHB should be avoided during pregnancy. Moreover, sedative drugs might make the baby sleepy, have breathing problems, and have low muscle tone.

GHB Drug & Alcohol

When GHB is taken with other substances, such as alcohol, the risk of overdosing rises, and it is hazardous to combine GHB with other depressive medications.

GHB Drug Origin

Both domestic and foreign underground labs generate GHB drugs illegally. Local operators’ covert synthesis is the primary way GHB gets onto the street. GHB is often sold in liquid form by the capful or “swig” at bars or “rave” parties for $5 to $25. Moreover, like any drug containing a restricted substance, prescription GHB Xyrem has the potential for abuse and recreational use.

GHB is a powerful depressant drug, and it’s easy to overdose. GHB detox can help reduce the risk of overdose and other health complications associated with GHB drug abuse.

What Is Gamma Hydroxybutyrate Used For?

Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant primarily used for its sedative and hypnotic effects. It has been used medically to treat narcolepsy and alcohol withdrawal symptoms. However, it is more commonly known as a recreational drug due to its euphoric and intoxicating effects, and it has been associated with abuse and illicit use.

GHB Drug Sedative Effects

The sedative effects of GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate) can produce several physiological and psychological changes in individuals who use the drug. These effects include relaxation, drowsiness, and decreased inhibitions. GHB can induce a state of euphoria and tranquility, leading to feelings of calmness and reduced anxiety. However, excessive doses or misuse of GHB can result in profound sedation, loss of consciousness, and potential risks to respiratory function and overall health.

GHB Drug’s Effect On The Mind

Very modest levels of GHB are present naturally in the central nervous system. GHB use has depressive effects on the central nervous system (CNS), such as:

  • Decreased anxiety, euphoria, sleepiness, disorientation, and memory impairment.

Furthermore, GHB side effects can result in violent and ironically enthusiastic behavior and visual hallucinations. GHB significantly amplifies alcohol and other depressants’ CNS depressant effects.

GHB Drug’s Effect On The Body

GHB drug takes effect in 15 to 30 minutes and has a 3- to 6-hour half-life. GHB causes nausea at low doses.

GHB overdose at high levels can cause:

  • Convulsions, a coma, a significant slowdown in breathing, a drop in body temperature, unconsciousness, vomiting, and nausea.

Regular GHB use can result in addiction and withdrawal symptoms like:

  • Insomnia, trembling, anxiety, elevated heart rate and blood pressure, and sporadic psychotic ideas. There isn’t a treatment for GHB toxicity at the moment, and there are several adverse effects associated with GHB analogs, including:
    • Topical skin and eye irritation; dizziness, nausea, vomiting, incontinence; loss of consciousness; seizures; liver damage; kidney failure; respiratory depression; and death.
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GHB Drug Statistics

While GHB is not as widely discussed as other substances, it has been associated with illicit recreational use, particularly in party or club scenes. GHB-related issues, such as overdose or drug-facilitated sexual assault, have been reported.


Fifty-eight percent of all GHB references in drug-related ER visits are made by people between 18 and 25.

Source: NCBI


In the United States, over 2% of seniors in high school reported using the substance at least once in the previous 12 months.

Source: NCBI


An estimated 0.05% of adults in the United States have used GHB in the past year.

Source: NCBI

Does GHB Show In Drug Test?

A competent laboratory with the necessary licensing and GHB testing expertise should conduct a drug test for GHB. It should contain both preliminary screening and confirmation tests. No instant, fast, or point-of-collection (POCT) test products are available for drug test GHB analysis.

Therefore, the recommended practice for gamma-hydroxybutyrate testing is always lab testing. GHB does not stay in each user’s system at the same time. The substance’s potency, frequency of usage, and body weight are all considerations. Below is only a general guideline:

  • Urine should be collected for a urine test 24 to 48 hours following intake.
  • A GHB hair test might be a better choice. Hair shouldn’t be gathered until 14–30 days after the incident.
  • GHB use can be traced back to 90 days using a hair drug test.

Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid Test

A gamma-hydroxybutyric acid test is a diagnostic tool used to detect the presence of GHB or its metabolites in the body. This test is commonly conducted in situations such as suspected drug intoxication, drug-facilitated sexual assault cases, or monitoring individuals with GHB misuse or addiction.

The test can be performed using various biological samples, including blood, urine, or hair, and it typically relies on specialized laboratory techniques such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for accurate detection and quantification of GHB or its metabolites.

GHB drug, also called "the date rape drug," causes users to experience deep unconsciousness and memory disruption.
GHB drug, also called “the date rape drug,” causes users to experience deep unconsciousness and memory disruption.

Does GHB show on a drug test? Yes. It is essential to quit using GHB if you want to know how to pass a drug test for the substance. After a night out, people frequently wake up with little recollection of the previous night’s activities. To determine whether you were under the influence of drugs the last night, a GHB drug test is frequently requested.

Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate Urine Test

The test is conducted by collecting a urine sample from the individual and analyzing it in a laboratory using techniques such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) or immunoassay. The results of a GHB urine test can provide valuable information about recent GHB use and assist in medical treatment, legal proceedings, or investigations.

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Long-Term GHB Drug Effects

Long-term use of GHB can have various effects on the body and brain. Prolonged and excessive GHB use may lead to physical dependence, addiction, and withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation.

GHB Drug Withdrawal Symptoms

GHB drug withdrawal can involve a range of symptoms, including anxiety, insomnia, tremors, sweating, nausea, and in severe cases, seizures.

  • 1 – 2 days: The first GHB withdrawal symptoms to appear are typically anxiety, insomnia, tremors, and episodes of a racing heartbeat.
  • 3 – 4 days: Sweating and blood pressure spikes are expected for the first few days.
  • 1 – 5 days: Hallucinations and confusion are typical, and the person may become violent and completely lose touch with reality.
  • Usually, GHB withdrawal syndrome can last no longer than 15 days, and its symptoms can continue to occur during this period.

Withdrawal from GHB should be managed under medical supervision to ensure safety and to provide appropriate support and interventions.

Symptoms of GHB Drug Overdose

GHB overdose can occur when an individual consumes a higher dose than their body can tolerate. Symptoms of GHB overdose can include:

  • Headaches.
  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Hallucinations.
  • Seizures.
  • Reduced breathing and heart rate.
  • Amnesia.
  • Loss of consciousness.
  • Coma.
  • Death.

Immediate medical attention is essential in cases of suspected GHB overdose.

Chronic GHB use has been associated with cognitive impairments, including memory problems and difficulties with attention and concentration. Long-term GHB use can also affect the cardiovascular system, liver, and kidneys, potentially leading to organ damage or dysfunction. It is essential to seek medical help and support to address any long-term effects of GHB use.

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Contact We Level Up for treatment referrals and resources to recover from GHB drug addiction and have a long-term drug-free life!
Contact We Level Up for treatment referrals and resources to recover from GHB drug addiction and have a long-term drug-free life!

Where Can I Find Help, GHB Addiction Treatment and Support?

Seeking help is a crucial and courageous step toward recovery. It is advisable to consult with addiction treatment professionals who can assess your specific needs and guide you toward appropriate resources and treatment options.

Research and locate addiction treatment centers or programs specializing in substance abuse and addiction. These facilities offer various treatment options, including detoxification, inpatient or residential rehabilitation, counseling, and support groups.

Contacting an accredited addiction treatment center or a licensed healthcare professional, such as a primary care physician or addiction specialist, is a crucial first step. They can assess your situation, provide guidance, and refer you to appropriate treatment options. Contact us today at We Level Up to get started and for more information.

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Top 5 What Kind Of Drug Is GHB? FAQs

  1. What is gamma hydroxybutyric acid used for?

    Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has limited medical use and is primarily prescribed for treating narcolepsy with cataplexy, a sleep disorder. It can help reduce excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplectic attacks in some individuals. However, GHB is a controlled substance due to its potential for abuse, and its recreational use is illegal and associated with significant health risks.

  2. What is the drug GHB?

    GHB, short for gamma-hydroxybutyrate, is a synthetic central nervous system depressant drug. It is known for its sedative, euphoric, and intoxicating effects. GHB is a controlled substance due to its potential for abuse and is regulated in many countries.

  3. What type of drug is GHB?

    GHB (Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate) is classified as a central nervous system (CNS) depressant drug. It acts on the GHB receptors in the brain, resulting in sedative, hypnotic, and euphoric effects.

  4. Does GHB show on drug tests?

    Yes, GHB can be detected in specific drug tests. However, it is not typically included in standard drug screenings. Specialized tests, such as urine or blood tests specifically targeting GHB, can detect its presence if the test is specifically designed to identify the compound.

  5. What are GHB drug effects?

    The effects of GHB can vary based on the dose and individual response. GHB produces sedation, euphoria, relaxation, and increased sociability. Higher doses can cause profound sedation, dizziness, confusion, amnesia, and even loss of consciousness.

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Search We Level Up GHB Drug Detox, Mental Health Topics & Resources

[1] Le JK, Richards JR. Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate Toxicity. [Updated 2022 Aug 8]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK430781/

[2] Busardò FP, Jones AW. GHB pharmacology and toxicology: acute intoxication, concentrations in blood and urine in forensic cases, and treatment of the withdrawal syndrome. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2015 Jan;13(1):47-70. doi 10.2174/1570159X13666141210215423. PMID: 26074743; PMCID: PMC4462042.

[3] GHB and Analogs Fast Facts – Department of Justice (.gov)

[4] Drug Fact Sheet: GHB – Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)

[5] GHB – Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid – Drug Enforcement Administration (.gov)

[6] Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) – Office of Justice Programs (.gov)

[7] GHB – Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid – Get Smart About Drugs (.gov)

[8] GHB & Xyrem (sodium oxybate) Information – Food & Drug Administration (.gov)

[9] Club Drugs (GHB, Ketamine, and Rohypnol) – Veterans Affairs (.gov)

[10] Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements for Drug Products Containing Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) – Federal Register (.gov)