Narcissistic Personality Disorder, Treatment, and Diagnosis

Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) treatments typically involve a combination of psychotherapy, medication, and support from mental health professionals.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder Treatments

Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) treatments typically involve a combination of psychotherapy, medication, and support from mental health professionals. Here are some commonly used treatment approaches for NPD:

  • Psychotherapy: Psychotherapy, particularly psychodynamic therapy, is often the primary treatment for NPD. It focuses on exploring underlying emotions, addressing maladaptive thought patterns, and developing healthier coping mechanisms. Therapists may use techniques such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) to help individuals with NPD gain insight into their behavior and learn more adaptive ways of relating to others.
  • Group therapy: Group therapy can benefit individuals with NPD, providing a supportive environment for developing empathy, interpersonal skills, and self-awareness. Being part of a group allows individuals to receive feedback from peers and better understand their behavior’s impact on others.
  • Medication: While there is no specific medication approved for treating NPD itself, medications may be prescribed to address co-occurring conditions such as depression, anxiety, or impulsivity, which are common in individuals with NPD. Antidepressants, mood stabilizers, or anti-anxiety medications may be prescribed to alleviate associated symptoms.
  • Boundary-setting and self-care: Learning healthy boundaries and self-care practices are crucial for individuals with NPD. This may involve recognizing and respecting others’ boundaries, setting realistic expectations, and engaging in activities promoting self-esteem and well-being.
  • Supportive networks: Building a support system that includes understanding family members, friends, or support groups can be helpful for individuals with NPD. These networks provide encouragement, accountability, and emotional support during treatment.

It is important to note that treatment for NPD can be challenging, as individuals with NPD may resist acknowledging their difficulties and seeking help. However, with persistence, a collaborative therapeutic approach, and a commitment to personal growth, individuals with NPD can progress in managing their symptoms and developing healthier patterns of relating to others.

What Is A Narcissistic Personality? Diagnosis

A narcissistic personality is a pattern of traits and behaviors associated with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD). It is characterized by an inflated sense of self-importance, a constant need for admiration and attention, and a lack of empathy for others.

Diagnosing Narcissistic Personality Disorder typically involves a comprehensive evaluation by a qualified mental health professional, such as a psychiatrist or psychologist. The diagnosis is based on the criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), widely used by mental health professionals.

Narcissistic Personality Traits

The DSM-5 lists specific diagnostic criteria for NPD, and an individual must meet several criteria to receive a diagnosis. These criteria include:

  • Having a grandiose sense of self-importance or exaggerating achievements and talents.
  • Fantasizing about unlimited success, power, beauty, or ideal love.
  • Believing in one’s uniqueness and requiring excessive admiration.
  • Having a sense of entitlement and expecting special treatment from others.
  • Exploiting others to achieve personal goals without empathy or remorse.
  • Displaying arrogant behaviors or attitudes.

During the evaluation, the mental health professional will thoroughly assess the individual’s symptoms, behavior patterns, personal history, and psychological functioning. They may also gather information from the person’s family members, friends, or other relevant sources to comprehensively understand their behavior.

Only qualified mental health professionals can diagnose Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Self-diagnosis or diagnosing others based on online information is not reliable or accurate. If you suspect that you or someone you know may have NPD, it is advisable to consult a mental health professional for a proper evaluation and diagnosis.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) treatments typically involve a combination of psychotherapy, medication, and support from mental health professionals.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) treatments typically involve a combination of psychotherapy, medication, and support from mental health professionals.

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Narcissistic Personality Disorder Facts

Narcissistic Personality Disorder Definition

Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) is a mental health condition characterized by an inflated sense of self-importance, a constant need for admiration, and a lack of empathy for others.

Traits and Behaviors

  • Grandiose sense of self-importance and entitlement.
  • Exaggerated achievements and talents.
  • Preoccupation with fantasies of unlimited success, power, or beauty.
  • A constant need for admiration and attention.
  • Lack of empathy for others’ feelings and needs.
  • Exploitative behavior and a sense of entitlement.
  • Envious of others or believes others are envious of them.
  • Arrogant and haughty attitude towards others.

What Causes Narcissistic Personality Disorder?

  • Early life experiences, such as excessive praise or excessive criticism/neglect.
  • Genetic and biological factors may contribute to the development of NPD.
  • Personality traits, such as low self-esteem and vulnerability to shame.
  • Sociocultural factors emphasize individualism and achievement.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder Treatments

  • Psychotherapy, including psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), can help explore underlying issues, modify distorted thinking patterns, and improve self-awareness.
  • Group therapy offers support, feedback, and learning opportunities from others with similar challenges.
  • Family therapy can address relationship dynamics and improve communication patterns within the family unit.
  • Self-help strategies such as self-reflection, empathy practice, and emotional regulation techniques can aid personal growth.
  • Medication may be prescribed for co-occurring conditions like depression or anxiety.

Important Considerations

  • Individuals with NPD may resist seeking treatment due to difficulty acknowledging flaws or seeking help.
  • Treatment progress may require patience, consistency, and willingness to engage in therapy.
  • A qualified mental health professional should be consulted for an accurate diagnosis and tailored treatment plan.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder Statistics

Approximately 1% of the population is affected by Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), with a higher prevalence among men. NPD patients frequently experience comorbidities such as depression, anxiety disorders, or substance abuse issues. NPD significantly impacts interpersonal relationships, making maintaining fulfilling and lasting connections challenging. Furthermore, it can pose difficulties in work environments, particularly when collaborating with others or dealing with authority figures. Seeking assistance for NPD can be challenging since individuals with the disorder often struggle to acknowledge their shortcomings and prefer to maintain a sense of superiority over others.


How much NPD affects the general population

Source: NIMH

2 – 3x Higher

NPD in males is approximately two to three times higher than in narcissistic personality disorder in women.

Source: NIMH


Individuals with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) are estimated to have co-occurring mental health issues.

Source: NIMH

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NPD is a psychological condition characterized by an inflated sense of self-importance, a constant need for admiration and attention, and a lack of empathy for others.
NPD is a psychological condition characterized by an inflated sense of self-importance, a constant need for admiration and attention, and a lack of empathy for others.

What Is A Narcissistic Person?

A narcissistic person is an individual who displays traits and behaviors associated with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD). NPD is a psychological condition characterized by an inflated sense of self-importance, a constant need for admiration and attention, and a lack of empathy for others. People with NPD often have a grandiose view of themselves, believing they are superior to others and deserve special treatment.

Narcissistic individuals focus excessively on their achievements, talents, and appearance. They may engage in self-centered and manipulative behavior to maintain their self-perceived superiority and control over others. They often have difficulty forming genuine and empathetic connections with people, as their interactions revolve around fulfilling their needs and seeking validation.

Not all individuals displaying narcissistic traits necessarily have NPD. Some people may exhibit certain narcissistic behaviors without meeting the criteria for a clinical diagnosis. However, when these traits become pervasive, negatively impact relationships, and hinder overall functioning, a diagnosis of Narcissistic Personality Disorder may be considered.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder Types

In psychology, no recognized typology or subtype of Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) exists within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The DSM-5 describes Narcissistic Personality Disorder as a single diagnostic category with specific criteria for diagnosis.

However, it is worth noting that individuals with NPD can exhibit varying degrees and manifestations of the disorder, leading to differences in their narcissistic traits and behaviors. This can result in variations in how NPD presents itself in different individuals.

While there may not be formal subtypes within NPD, some experts have proposed conceptualizations highlighting certain patterns or variations in individuals with narcissistic traits. For example, some researchers have discussed “overt” and “covert” narcissism, which refer to differences in how narcissistic traits are displayed and whether they are more overtly or covertly expressed.

These conceptualizations can provide additional insight into the range of behaviors and presentations seen in individuals with narcissistic traits. However, it is essential to note that these are not recognized as official subtypes within the diagnostic criteria of NPD.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder In Women

Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) can affect both men and women, although the prevalence rates may vary. Research suggests that NPD is more commonly diagnosed in men, but this may be partly due to differences in help-seeking behaviors and diagnostic biases.

Regarding symptoms and characteristics, NPD in women tends to manifest similarly to NPD in men. Individuals with NPD, regardless of gender, typically exhibit an exaggerated sense of self-importance, a constant need for admiration, a lack of empathy, and a grandiose self-image. They may engage in manipulative behaviors to maintain their perceived superiority and control over others.

Each individual is unique, and the presentation of NPD can vary. Cultural and societal factors may influence how different genders express or perceive narcissism. Comorbidities such as depression, anxiety disorders, or substance abuse may also be prevalent among women with NPD.

It is crucial to approach NPD as a personality disorder that can affect individuals regardless of gender. Seeking professional help from qualified mental health practitioners is important for accurate diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and support for individuals with NPD, regardless of gender identity.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder Symptoms

A pattern of pervasive and rigid traits and behaviors characterizes Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD). Here are some common symptoms associated with NPD:

  • Grandiose sense of self-importance: Individuals with NPD often have an exaggerated belief in their abilities, talents, and achievements. They may feel superior and expect special treatment and recognition.
  • Preoccupation with fantasies of success and power: They may have vivid daydreams or fantasies about unlimited success, wealth, beauty, or idealized love relationships.
  • Need for constant admiration: People with NPD have an insatiable desire for attention, praise, and admiration from others. They may seek validation and recognition to maintain their self-esteem.
  • Sense of entitlement: Individuals with NPD often have an entitled attitude, believing they deserve special treatment and privileges. They may expect others to fulfill their needs and cater to their desires without question.
  • Lack of empathy: Empathy is limited or absent in individuals with NPD. They struggle to understand or recognize the feelings and needs of others, often dismissing or disregarding them.
  • Exploitative behavior: People with NPD may exploit or manipulate others for personal gain. They may take advantage of others’ vulnerabilities, talents, or resources to meet their needs without regard for their impact on others.
  • Envious or jealous tendencies: Individuals with NPD may harbor envy towards others, especially those they perceive as more successful or accomplished. They may feel threatened by others’ achievements.
  • Arrogant or haughty behavior: NPD often manifests in an arrogant or superior attitude. They may exhibit condescending behavior, belittle others, or dismiss their opinions and ideas.

Only a qualified mental health professional can diagnose NPD based on a comprehensive evaluation. If you or someone you know exhibits these symptoms, seeking professional help for a proper assessment and diagnosis is recommended.

Covert Narcissistic Personality Disorder

“Covert Narcissistic Personality Disorder” is not officially recognized as a distinct subtype or diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). However, some experts and clinicians use the term “covert narcissism” to describe a pattern of narcissistic traits and behaviors less overtly expressed than what is typically associated with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD).

Covert narcissism is often characterized by a more introverted and vulnerable presentation, which may include:

  • Inwardly-focused grandiosity: Individuals with covert narcissism may have a sense of superiority and specialness, but they tend to keep these feelings hidden rather than displaying them openly.
  • Hypersensitivity to criticism: Covert narcissists may be highly sensitive to criticism or perceived rejection. They may have fragile self-esteem and react strongly to perceived threats to their self-image.
  • Self-pity and victim mentality: Rather than openly seeking admiration and attention, individuals with covert narcissism may adopt a victim role and seek sympathy and validation through their perceived suffering.
  • Passive-aggressive behavior: Covert narcissists may use indirect and manipulative behaviors to assert control or obtain validation. They may use guilt, passive resistance, or subtle tactics to influence others.

The concept of covert narcissism is not universally agreed upon, and there is ongoing debate and discussion among professionals regarding its validity as a distinct subtype of NPD or as a separate construct altogether.

Suppose you suspect you or someone you know may exhibit traits associated with covert narcissism or NPD. Consulting with a qualified mental health professional for a comprehensive evaluation and diagnosis is advisable.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder Test

Am I a Narcissist Test (Narcissist Quiz)

Welcome to the Narcissistic Personality Disorder Test, also known as the Narcissist Test or "Am I a Narcissist" Test. This free online quiz is designed to provide you with insights into narcissistic personality traits and help you evaluate your own tendencies.

It is important to note that this test is not a substitute for professional diagnosis or evaluation. Narcissistic personality disorder is a complex mental health condition that can only be diagnosed by a qualified healthcare professional or mental health expert.

*By taking this free quiz, you may obtain your results online and in your email box. You’ll have the opportunity to opt-in to learn more about your symptoms, talk to a mental health consultant and join our newsletter. Rest assured your information is private and confidential. Results, consultations and assessment are provided without any cost to you and without any obligation. If you do not wish to provide your contact information, you may omit it during your quiz. Thank you for opting in and participating. To you best of health.

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Narcissistic Personality Disorder Supportive Therapy

Supportive therapy can be valuable in treating individuals with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD). While NPD can be challenging, supportive therapy provides a safe and non-judgmental space for individuals to explore their emotions, improve self-esteem, and develop healthier coping strategies. Here are some key aspects of supportive therapy for NPD:

  • Building rapport and trust: A strong therapeutic alliance is crucial in supportive therapy. The therapist creates a trusting relationship with the individual, offering empathy and understanding without reinforcing narcissistic tendencies.
  • Validation and empathy: Individuals with NPD often have difficulties with self-worth and may feel invalidated. Supportive therapy focuses on validating their emotions and experiences, helping them feel understood and accepted.
  • Encouraging self-reflection: Supportive therapy gently guides individuals to reflect on their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. This process promotes self-awareness and helps them gain insight into the impact of their actions on themselves and others.
Supportive therapy can be valuable in treating individuals with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD).
Supportive therapy can be valuable in treating individuals with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD).
  • Emotional regulation: Individuals with NPD may struggle with managing their emotions effectively. Supportive therapy helps them develop healthier ways to cope with distress, regulate emotions, and constructively express themselves.
  • Strengthening interpersonal skills: Supportive therapy can assist individuals in improving their interpersonal relationships. This may involve learning active listening, empathy, and understanding others’ perspectives, fostering healthier and more balanced connections.
  • Addressing co-occurring issues: Supportive therapy can also address co-occurring conditions such as anxiety, depression, or substance abuse often accompanying NPD. By addressing these issues, overall well-being and functioning can improve.

Supportive therapy alone may not be sufficient for treating NPD. Depending on the severity of the condition, other therapeutic approaches such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychodynamic therapy, or group therapy may also be beneficial. Individualized treatment plans should be developed with a qualified mental health professional specializing in personality disorders.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder Specialists

When seeking professional help for Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), working with mental health specialists with experience and expertise in treating personality disorders is important. Here are some specialists who may be involved in the diagnosis and treatment of NPD:

  • Psychologists: Clinical psychologists specializing in personality disorders are well-equipped to assess and diagnose NPD. They can provide individual therapy, conduct psychological assessments, and develop treatment plans tailored to the individual’s needs.
  • Psychiatrists: Psychiatrists are medical doctors who specialize in mental health. They can assess, diagnose, and prescribe medication for NPD and co-occurring mental health conditions. Psychiatrists may work with psychologists or other therapists to provide comprehensive treatment.
  • Psychotherapists or Counselors: These professionals may hold various titles, such as licensed professional counselors, marriage and family therapists, or social workers. They provide talk therapy and supportive counseling to individuals with NPD, helping them navigate the challenges associated with the disorder.
  • Group Therapists: Group therapy, specifically designed for individuals with personality disorders, can be beneficial in treating NPD. Group therapists facilitate structured sessions where individuals with NPD can share experiences, learn from others, and develop healthier interpersonal skills.
  • Psychodynamic Therapists: Psychodynamic therapists explore the underlying unconscious processes and unresolved conflicts contributing to NPD. They help individuals understand their behavior patterns and work toward healthier self-perception and relationship dynamics.

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We Level Up Narcissistic Personality Disorder Center

  • Diagnostic Assessment: Conduct thorough evaluations and assessments to diagnose Narcissistic Personality Disorder in individuals seeking help accurately.
  • Individual Therapy: Providing one-on-one therapy sessions with qualified professionals trained in treating NPD. These sessions can focus on exploring and addressing the unique challenges and symptoms associated with the disorder, such as excessive self-importance, a lack of empathy, and unstable self-esteem.
  • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT): Utilizing CBT techniques to help individuals with NPD identify and challenge maladaptive thought patterns and behaviors. This approach can assist in developing healthier coping mechanisms, improving interpersonal relationships, and fostering empathy.
  • Group Therapy: Offering specialized group therapy sessions for individuals with NPD. Group therapy provides a supportive environment for individuals to share experiences, gain insights from others, and practice healthy social interactions.
  • Emotional Regulation Training: Assisting individuals in developing emotional regulation skills to manage intense emotions and reduce impulsive or reactive behaviors commonly associated with NPD.
  • Interpersonal Skills Development: Providing guidance and coaching to improve social skills, communication, and empathy. This can help individuals with NPD develop healthier and more balanced relationships with others.
  • Self-Reflection and Insight: Encouraging self-reflection and introspection to promote greater self-awareness and understanding of the underlying factors contributing to NPD symptoms. This can aid in fostering personal growth and positive change.
  • Family Therapy and Support: Involving family members in therapy sessions to address the impact of NPD on family dynamics and relationships. Family therapy can enhance communication, foster empathy, and support loved ones affected by NPD.
  • Coping Strategies and Relapse Prevention: Equipping individuals with NPD with practical coping strategies to manage stress, maintain emotional stability, and prevent relapses into maladaptive behavior patterns.
  • Collaborative Care: Coordinating with other healthcare professionals, such as psychiatrists or medical providers, to ensure comprehensive and integrated care for individuals with NPD. Medication management may be considered if the pharmacological intervention can benefit some co-occurring conditions or symptoms.
  1. What are The Specialists Able to Diagnose a Narcissistic Personality Disorder?

    Psychiatrists and clinical psychologists are specialists who can diagnose Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD).

  2. Who is a narcissistic person?

    A narcissistic person is someone who has an excessive preoccupation with themselves, seeks constant admiration, and lacks empathy for others.

  3. What is narcissistic personality?

    Narcissistic personality refers to a personality trait characterized by excessive self-importance, a need for admiration, and a lack of empathy for others.

  4. What causes narcissistic personality disorder?

    The exact cause of narcissistic personality disorder is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors.

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  1. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) – Narcissistic Personality Disorder:
  2. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) – Narcissistic Personality Disorder:
  3. MedlinePlus – Narcissistic Personality Disorder:
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) – Mental Health:
  5. National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) – Narcissistic Personality Disorder:
  6. National Institutes of Health (NIH) – Narcissistic Personality Disorder:
  7. National Library of Medicine – Narcissistic Personality Disorder:
  8. Office of Women’s Health – Narcissistic Personality Disorder:
  9. National Institute on Aging – Narcissistic Personality Disorder:
  10. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) – Narcissistic Personality Disorder: